There are multiple ways that retail investors can determine the market value for each property held by a real estate developer. These include Net Asset Values (NAV) and Revalued Net Asset Value (RNAV). The following will explain them and how to value real estate stocks.
What is RNAV?
RNAV, or Revalued Net Asset Value, represents the valuation methodology where the main goal is to estimate adjusted assets and liabilities to their estimated fair market values.
This method is conducted after each property project’s market value has been determined. The RNAV method is more complex as it requires using the net asset value (NAV) and deducting the liabilities to find the Revalued Net Asset Value of the real estate developer.
1. Value changes within the company’s held investment property
2. Surplus value of the held property for development
3. Company’s NAV is shown on the balance sheet.
Therefore, the only surplus and change values considered are the property book values within the portfolio. These are the figures shown on the balance sheet used for adding the company’s NAV to calculate the Revalued Net Asset Value.
Additionally, some may refer to RNAV as “Revised Net Asset Value.” In either case, a premium or discount will typically be added to the RNAV, which accounts for factors including management size, quality, the company’s overall track record, business risk, and reputation.
Below is an example RNAV calculation:
- Surplus Value: Property 1 ($$ m) 20.0
- Surplus Value: Property 2 ($$ m) 10.0
- Surplus Value: Property 3 ($$ m) 5.0
- Total Surplus 35.0
- + Company Nav ($$ m) 210.0
- + Shareholders Funds ($$ m) 700.0
- RNAV ($$ m) 945.0
- Discount to RNAV 20%
- Discounted RNAV 756.0
- Number of Outstanding Shares (m) 800.0
- RNAV per share ($) 0.95
What is NAV?
In theory, any financial product or business entity with asset and liability accounting operations can have a Net Asset Value (NAV). When discussing business and company entities, the gap between the asset and liabilities is commonly referred to as the company’s capital, net worth, or net assets.
NAV has become a popular industry trend associated with fund pricing and valuation, calculated by dividing the company’s assets and liabilities by the total number of units or shares investors hold. Therefore, the NAV of funds reflects the value per share. This is a simple method to use to value and transact fund shares.
Calculating the Net Asset Value of a mutual fund is simple; for example:
Meanwhile, the fund’s assets and liabilities should include the proper qualifying items.
Using NAV with Mutual Funds
While common stock prices constantly change from one second to the following, mutual funds are not priced in real-time but based on the assets and liabilities when the day ends. Therefore, the mutual fund assets include the total market value when combining the mutual fund’s cash, investments, accrued and receivables income, and cash equivalents. Meanwhile, the market value is determined daily depending on the closing price of securities held within the portfolio.
Because funds can have a specific amount of capital as liquid and cash assets, those are calculated under the heading of cash or cash equivalents. Accrued income includes money earned but not received by the fund. Receivables refer to interest payments or dividends applied during that day. Finally, all these and the qualifying variations are combined to determine the sum of the fund’s assets.
Generally, mutual fund liabilities include pending payments, fees owed to different associated entities, or money owed to banks. Also, funds can have foreign liabilities, which could consist of dividends or income to non-residents that are pending or shares held by non-residents, along with proceeds that are pending repatriation. These can be classified further as short-term or long-term liabilities based on the length of payment.
All the items are categorized as assets or liabilities for calculating NAV for a particular day.
Suppose a mutual fund has $200 million in total investments across multiple securities based on each asset’s closing price that day. Additionally, it holds $8 million in cash or cash equivalents, $5 million receivable, and the day accrued income was $100,000. Meanwhile, the mutual fund also has $3 million long-term and $14 million short-term liabilities, while the days accrued expenses were $12,000 with 6 million outstanding shares. The following formula is used to calculate the Net Asset Value:
NAV = [($200,000,000 + $8,000,000 + $5,000,000 + $100,000) – ($14,000,000 + $3,000,000 + $12,000)] / 6,000,000 = ($213,100,000 – $10,988,000) / 6,000,000 = $33.69
How is RNAV Different from NAV?
The RNAV is a more complex calculation requiring knowledge of additional company information. At the same time, NAV is a more straightforward calculation that divides company assets and liabilities by the number of outstanding shares held by investors.
The RNAV method requires knowledge of the development of property or company value, revaluation surplus, and outstanding shares held by investors. Additionally, RNAV discounts are needed to calculate the Revalued Net Asset Value correctly.
Generally, a retail investor cannot easily use the RNAV method for valuing real estate developments because of the information requirements. Furthermore, acquiring the data to calculate each property’s market value a developer holds can be costly. Therefore, analyst reports remain the best retail investors’ approach when analyzing the developer because they already have access to the information.
How to Value Real Estate Stocks?
Before purchasing a property, it is recommended to figure out the value to ensure a fair price and transaction. This rule applies to real estate stock as with any other. There are three methods of analyzing real estate, depending on the property type and data availability.
This method is used for estimating property value depending on the revenue generated. This method is frequently helpful for properties that are producing income. This approach uses capitalization rates – the real estate property’s potential ROI – along with net operating income to estimate the property’s value. Additionally, discounted cash flow is a factor that can help derive property value.
The following is a basic example of the capitalization approach.
a. To find the property value based on capitalization rates, determine the net rentals realized or net operating income. Then, operating costs (minus monthly mortgages) are deducted from the total rental revenue to determine the net operating income.
b. Figure out the ROI you would like, along with the expected monthly rental. Then, using the following formula, we can determine the property value:
If you’re looking to purchase a condo and use it for a rental property that rents for $1,100/month and generates a 5% ROI, you will use the following to calculate the amount to purchase the property at (or below).
($1,100 x 12) / 5% = $264,000
2. Market or Sales Comparison Method
This method estimates the property value by evaluating the recent sell price of similar properties within the area. The sales comparison method is often used to determine the value of family homes. However, two different properties will never be the same. Therefore, adjustments will be required to ensure the sell prices are similar to the property features. When a property offers features not available on the comparison properties, the selling price is adjusted upward or downward when the subject property lacks a characteristic of a comparison property.
To determine real estate value using the market method:
a. Locate similar properties in the area sold recently.
b. Adjust based on differences in quality, quantity, size, location, etc.
3. Cost Method
This method estimates property value based on the costs of building or replacing the property. The cost method is frequently for purchasing recently constructed properties, requiring knowing the cost for materials and construction. The technique is commonly used for purchasing properties with hard-to-find comparisons sold recently while not generating an income. Typically, the cost method considers the land value while including the cost to build structures while subtracting depreciation.
Reproduction refers to the expenses to fully duplicate the property’s structure.
Replacement refers to the cost of building a similar structure with updated materials and construction methods. Therefore, replacement costs are more common based on current construction costs.
To estimate the replacement or reproduction cost, there are three common approaches:
1. Comparison or Square-foot approach is based on comparing recently developed properties based on cost-per-square-foot, multiplying it by the subject property’s total square footage.
2. Unit-in-Place approach is a modified version of a quantity survey. However, rather than analyzing the costs for every item used in construction, it calculates the fees of materials, labor, entrepreneurial profit, and overhead for each property section—for instance, the cost per sq. ft. of wall roofs.
3. Quantity Survey approach combines the total cost of itemized materials, labor, entrepreneurial profit, and overhead. Appraisers rarely use this approach due to the time and in-depth work required.